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What is a relational database?

relational database (RDB) is a collective set of multiple data sets organized by tablesrecords and columns. RDBs establish a well-defined relationship between database tables. Tables communicate and share information, which facilitates data searchability, organization and reporting.

RDBs use Structured Query Language (SQL), which is a standard user application that provides an easy programming interface for database interaction.

Relational databases are based on the relational modelan intuitive, straightforward way of representing data in tables. In a relational database, each row in the table is a record with a unique ID called the key. The columns of the table hold attributes of the data, and each record usually has a value for each attribute, making it easy to establish the relationships among data points.

Benefits of Relational Databases:

  • Data Consistency
  • Commitment and Atomicity
  • Stored Procedures and Relational Databases
  • Database Locking and Concurrency

Relational Database Terms

Below are the unique terms and specific definitions that will help you understand what a RDB can do and how it works:

Row : A set of data constituting a single item.

For example, the data for a single employee (e.g. first name, last name, employee ID, hire date, work location, etc.) of a company would be displayed in a row. A row can also be called a record, an entity, or a tuple.

Column: Labels for elements of rows. A column gives context to the information contained in rows. For an employee database, the column headers could be the items listed above for employees. A column is also known as an attribute or a field.

Table: A group of rows that match the parameters set up for the table. The data in a table must all be related. An employee database may have separate tables for active employees, retired employees, and former employees. A table is also known as a relation or base revelar.

View: A set of data based on a query via the RDBMS; also known as result set or derived revelar.

Domain: The set of possible values for a given column. For example, the phone number and ZIP code columns would be numbers, while first and last names would be limited to letters.

Constraint: A narrowing of a domain. For example, the domain of the work location on a employee record would be alphanumeric, but it could be restricted to a predefined list rather than being a free-form field. The phone number field would be constrained to 10 digits.

Primary key: The unique identifier of a row in a table.

Foreign key: The unique identifier of a row in another table.

Distributed Database: A database that stores data in multiple locations, rather than on a single hard drive or server.

TYPES OF DATABASE RELATIONSHIPS

The power of a relational database is in the links and relations. By connecting rows in different tables through the use of primary and foreign keys, you can create views, reports, and other slices of information to serve your organization. There are three primary types of database relationships:

One-to-One: One row in one table is connected to one and only one row in another table. For example, a Social Security number is linked to a single employee.

One-to-Many: One row in one table is connected to zero, one, or more than one rows in another table. For example, one work location can be linked to many employees.

Many-to-Many: Zero, one, or many rows in one table are linked to zero, one, or many rows in another table. For example, multiple employees can be assigned to multiple projects.

What is SQL?

SQL stands for Structured Query Language. SQL is used to communicate with a database. According to ANSI (American National Standards Institute), it is the standard language for relational database management systems. It is used to perform operations on the data present in database.

SQL statements are used to perform tasks such as update data on a database, or retrieve data from a database.

Although most database systems use SQL, most of them also have their own additional proprietary extensions that are usually only used on their system.

However, the standard SQL commands such as “Select”, “Insert”, “Update”, “Delete”, “Create”, and “Drop” can be used to accomplish almost everything that one needs to do with a database.

SQL commands are divided into several different types, among them data manipulation language (DML) and data definition language (DDL) statements, transaction controls and security measures.

Some common relational database management systems that use SQL are: Oracle, Sybase, Microsoft SQL Server, Access, Ingres, etc.

MSSQL @@ROWCOUNT Tutorial

MSSQL @@ROWCOUNT Tutorial

The @@ROW COUNT variable returns the number of rows read by the last executed statement. If any statement does not return any rows, then value of @@ROWCOUNT variable is set to zero.

MSSQL @@ROWCOUNT VARIABLE SYNTAX

@@ROWCOUNT

Using @@ implies that it is a global variable. Also @@ROWCOUNT returns the value of int type i.e. the maximum no of rows @@ ROWCOUNT can return is 231 (2,147,483,647). For returning rows greater than this limit, ROWCOUNT_BIG function is used.

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SQL LIKE Operator

The LIKE operator is used to list all rows in a table whose column values match a specified pattern. It is useful when you want to search rows to match a specific pattern, or when you do not know the entire value. For this purpose we use a wildcard character ‘%’.

For example: To select all the students whose name begins with ‘S’

SELECT first_name, last_name
FROM student_details
WHERE first_name LIKE ‘S%’;

The output would be similar to:

first_name          last_name
————-          ————-
Stephen                 Fleming
Shekar                   Gowda

The above select statement searches for all the rows where the first letter of the column first_name is ‘S’ and rest of the letters in the name can be any character.

MS SQL Server – Editions

SQL Server is available in various editions. This chapter lists the multiple editions with its features.

Enterprise − This is the top-end edition with a full feature set.

Standard − This has less features than Enterprise, when there is no requirement of advanced features.

Workgroup − This is suitable for remote offices of a larger company.

Web − This is designed for web applications.

Developer − This is similar to Enterprise, but licensed to only one user for development, testing and demo. It can be easily upgraded to Enterprise without reinstallation.

Express − This is free entry level database. It can utilize only 1 CPU and 1 GB memory, the maximum size of the database is 10 GB.

Compact − This is free embedded database for mobile application development. The maximum size of the database is 4 GB.

Datacenter − The major change in new SQL Server 2008 R2 is Datacenter Edition. The Datacenter edition has no memory limitation and offers support for more than 25 instances.

Business Intelligence − Business Intelligence Edition is a new introduction in SQL Server 2012. This edition includes all the features in the Standard edition and support for advanced BI features such as Power View and PowerPivot, but it lacks support for advanced availability features like AlwaysOn Availability Groups and other online operations.

Enterprise Evaluation − The SQL Server Evaluation Edition is a great way to get a fully functional and free instance of SQL Server for learning and developing solutions. This edition has a built-in expiry of 6 months from the time that you install it.

2005 2008 2008 R2 2012 2014
Enterprise Yes Yes Yes Yes
Standard Yes Yes Yes Yes
Developer Yes Yes Yes Yes
Workgroup Yes Yes No No
Win Compact Edition – Mobile Yes Yes Yes Yes
Enterprise Evaluation Yes Yes Yes Yes
Express Yes Yes Yes Yes
Web Yes Yes Yes
Datacenter No No
Business Intelligence Yes

Using of And, OR and NOT in SQL Server

AND: The AND operator displays a record if all the conditions separated by AND is TRUE.

Syntax:

SELECT column1, column2, …
FROM table_name
WHERE condition1 AND condition2 AND condition3 …;

Example:

SELECT * FROM Customers
WHERE Country=’India’ AND City=’Hyderabad’;

The above SQL statement selects all fields from “Customers” where country is “India” AND city is “Hyderabad”

OR:The OR operator displays a record if any of the conditions separated by OR is TRUE.

Syntax:

SELECT column1, column2, …
FROM table_name
WHERE condition1 OR condition2 OR condition3 …;

Example:

SELECT * FROM Customers
WHERE City=’Hyderabad’ OR City=’Pune’;

The following SQL statement selects all fields from “Customers” where city is “Hyderabad” OR “Pune”

NOT:The NOT operator displays a record if the condition(s) is NOT TRUE.

Syntax:

SELECT column1, column2, …
FROM table_name
WHERE NOT condition;

Example:

SELECT * FROM Customers
WHERE NOT Country=’India’;

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