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3rd Normal Form (3NF)

Third normal form:

In second normal form, all columns in the table rely on the primary key and the table has a singular purpose

There could be relationships between the columns… dependencies could lurk within these columns called transitive dependence.

Transitive dependence means that a value of a column/field within a table relies on a another column in that same table, but this is facilitated through another column between them.

A table is in third normal form when the following conditions are met:

  • It is in second normal form.
  • All nonprimary fields are dependent on the primary key.

Again, transitive dependence means dependence between columns of the same table. Think of ArtistNationality, Artist, and Artwork. The values for ArtistNationality and Artist depend on the Artwork; once you figure out the Artwork, you know the Artist/ArtistNationality. But ArtistNationality depends on the value from Artist: This is a transitive dependence.

In order to get to third normal form, we need to make sure all columns are only dependent upon the primary key. That means we have to get the country code out of the artist table. In the following example, we’ve added country name to the table to further highlight the issue with normalizing

It’s fine that the country code exists in the artist table, but having the country name breaks the 3rd normal form rule, since we can’t get the country name without the code; we can’t get the code without the artist ID. This is by nature the definition of transitive dependence.

Let’s look at some examples that will use the fictional music database as a subject.

we’ll create another table called countries, move the country code and country name to this table. Country code becomes the primary key in the countries table, but is retained in the artist table as a foreign key.

First Normal Form (1NF)

First Normal Form (1NF)
A database table is said to be in 1NF if it contains no repeating fields/columns.

• Make a separate table for each set of related attributes and give each table a primary key. In simple words we can say it as
• There are no repeating or duplicate fields.
• Each cell contains only a single value.
• Each record is unique and identified by primary key

Example:

ITEM COLORS PRICES TAX
Pen Red,Blue 3.0 0.40
Scale Red,Yellow 3.0 0.40
Pen Red,Blue 3.0 0.40
Bag Blue,Black 120.0 12.52

This table is not in first normal form because:

• A. There are multiple fields in color lab.

• B. Records are repeating (Duplicate records) or no primary key. First Normal Form (1NF)

ITEM COLORS PRICES TAX
Pen Red 3.0 0.40
Pen Blue 3.0 0.40
Scale Red 3.0 0.40
Scale Yellow 3.0 0.40
Bag Blue 120.0 12.52
Bag Black 120.0 12.52

This table is now in first normal form.

Difference Between SQL & SQL Server

SQL Server is an RDBMS just like oracle,DB2 from Microsoft

Structured Query Language (SQL), pronounced “sequel”, is a language that provides an interface to relational database systems. It is an open, vendor-independentIt was developed by IBM in the 1970s for use in System R. SQL is a de facto standard, as well as an ISO and ANSI standard. SQL is used to perform various operations on RDBMS

SQL is the basic ANSI standard for accessing data in a relational database. When you see “MSSQL” it is referring to Microsoft SQL Server, which is the entire database architecture and not a language. T-SQL is the proprietary form of SQL used by Microsoft SQL Server. It includes special functions like cast, convert, date(), etc. that are not part of the ANSI standard.

You will also see things like plSQL, which is Oracle’s version of SQL, and there are others as well (mySQL has its own version, for example, and Microsoft Access uses Jet SQL.)

It is important to note the the ANSI standard for SQL has different releases (for example, 92 or 99, representing the year it was released.). Different database engines will advertise themselves as “mostly ANSI-92” compliant or “fully ANSI-99” compliant, etc, and any exceptions will usually be documented.

So although “SQL is SQL”, every engine uses its own “flavor” of it, and you do have to do a little reading on the particular platform before you just dive in.

A further note – the SQL extensions, like T-SQL, are generally considered full-fledged programming languages, complete with looping, if/then, case statements, etc. SQL itself is limited to simply querying and updating data and is not considered a true programming language.

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